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如何依照期刊规定正确使用based on与on the basis of

发布时间:2016-06-15 10:10 |  点击次数:

词组 based on 和 on the basis of 经常被替换使用,然而,这是不恰当的。因为based on 是分词,可被用来修饰名词、代名词和名词词组;而需修饰动词时,只能用介词词组on the basis of 。Based on 具有动词或形容词的功用,做形容词时,可修饰前置的名词或代名词,例如:
˙ This conclusion is based on four years of experience.
˙ Conclusions based on experience may still require testing.

若要修饰动词,请使用词组on the basis of。
例句1:病句:Based on the first four years of results, we discarded the original hypothesis.
修正句:On the basis of our results, we discarded the original hypothesis.
例句2:病句:The administration sent a document on the basis of your suggestion.
修正句:The administration sent a document based on your suggestion.

在例句2的修正句中,based on 被用来修饰前置名词 document,显示文件内容是基于your suggestion。而在原句中,on the basis of修饰动词send,表示根据your suggestion,文件已寄出。简单来说,当要表达according to(根据)的意思时,可以使用on the basis of,而当表达has a foundation in/has resulted from(基于/由于)的意思时,则应使用 based on。
例句:
˙ On the basis of the data obtained from randomized controlled trials, cognitive–behavioral therapy is the preferred treatment and is based on changing the emotional and psychological associations with sleeping that interfere with proper sleep.

被动式动词 + based on
例句:
˙ The experiments were designed based on our previous results.
该例句的作者原本想以based on 来修饰动词design,但却事与愿违,因为based on只能修饰前置的名词experiments;但实验的根据真是来自过去的研究结果吗?

若要强调实验的设计(即动词),则应使用介词词组on the basis of:
˙ The experiments were designed on the basis of our previous results.

如果既想要强调实验设计又希望保留词组 based on,不妨使用设计的名词形式,如:
˙ The design of the experiments was based on our previous results.
˙ The experimental design was based on our previous results.

不正确的相关字
Based on常被用于修饰最靠近的名词,但在正式的句法中,based on 却不适宜与名词相连。也就是说,这会形成垂悬分词(dangling participle)句型。

例句:
病句:Based on the MALDI–TOF results, testicular proteins were given a unified nomenclature.
根据based on修饰最靠近的名词的原则,该句中的based on 修饰的是testicular proteins(睪丸蛋白)。然而,这样却传递了错误的信息:睪丸蛋白是基于MALDI–TOF的结果。实际上,此句要陈述的是,睪丸蛋白的命名源于MALDI–TOF的结果。只需将based on替换为on the basis of,错误信息就可以被纠正:
修正句:On the basis of the MALDI–TOF results, testicular proteins were given a unified nomenclature.

例句:
病句 :Based on these criteria, the abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

同样的,此句中的based on 修饰最靠近的名词 abstract,从而误将句意表达为:这些准则是摘要的根基。实际上,这些准则是被用来排序摘要的依据。使用可定义动词的介词词组即可修正此情形:
˙ On the basis of these criteria, the abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

另外,舍弃介词词组,而直接使用介词from,可更简短地传达相同的意思:
˙ From these criteria, abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

例句:
病句:Based on the results, we concluded that the drugs are equally effective.

这些研究结果是什么的依据?逻辑主语为conclusion,但语法主词却是we。
修正句1:On the basis of the results, we concluded that the drugs are equally effective.
修正句2:We concluded from the results that the drugs are equally effective.
修正句3:Based on the results, our conclusion is that the drugs are equally effective.

掌握based on 与 on the basis of 的用法差异对学术写作重要吗?以下是各大期刊相关的规定及例子。

ACS的要求
词组 based on 仅用于修饰名词而非动词。当用于句首或修饰动词时,请使用 on the basis of。例如:请用 the results based on Smith’s theory . . . ,而避免 Based on Smith’s theory, we found . . . 。
http://publications.agu.org/files/2012/12/AGU_grammar_style.pdf

Conservation Biology的投稿须知
请将 based on 当作动词使用,而将 on the basis of 短语当作副词短语使用。
动词形式:We based identification of reserves on the number of species in each unit.
病句:We identified reserves based on the number of species in each unit.

副词形式:The solutions were compared on the basis of financial constraints.
病句:The solutions were compared based on financial constraints.
http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileyblackwell/images/alltherules_7_VII_2009_2_2.pdf
美国农艺学会(American Society of Agronomy)的出版与格式手册(Publications Handbook and Style Manual)

 

Based on 具有动词(We based our conclusions on four years of experience)或形容词的功用,且用作形容词时,可修饰前置的名词或代名词。
˙ This conclusion is based on four years of experience.
˙ Conclusions based on experience may still require testing.

修饰动词时,请使用 on the basis of 词组。
病句:Based on the first four years of results, we discarded the original hypothesis.
修正句:On the basis of our results, we discarded the original hypothesis.
https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/files/publications/style/chapter-02.pdf

Journal of Participatory Medicine
当表述 according to(根据)的意思时,请使用 on the basis of;当表述意思为 has a foundation in/has resulted from(基于/由于)时,请使用 based on。
˙ On the basis of data from randomized controlled trials, cognitive-behavioral therapy is the preferred treatment and is based on changing the emotional and psychological associations with sleeping that interfere with proper sleep.