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如何修正错误的“连写句”,降低论文遭退稿的机率?

发布时间:2016-11-02 10:21 |  点击次数:

这期的电子报,我们要讨论在论文编辑的过程中,常见作者犯的错误:连写句(run-on sentence)。

问题

当句中包含两个或两个以上未正确连接的独立的简单句时,即导致连写句。独立简单句具有完整的主谓结构,可独立成句,例如,The horse runs。连写句错误可能导致句意混淆、概念表述不清等问题,使阅读变得困难。

连写句有两种类型:融合句(fused sentence)和逗号拼接句(comma splice)。

 

不使用标点符号或连接词,而将两个或两个以上的独立简单句合写在一个句子里,该句为融合句,如:

My professor read my paper she said it was excellent.

而一个句子中的两个或两个以上的独立简单句仅用逗号隔开,该句为逗号拼接句,如:

My dog barked angrily, I knew he wanted food.

修正方法

可使用以下四种方法修正连写句:

  1. 使用一个逗号和一个并列连词(and, but, yet, so, or, nor, for

使用并列连词连接两个独立的简单句时,请在连词前加一个逗号。

病句(融合句)
My professor read my paper she said it was excellent.

病句(逗号拼接句)
My professor read my paper, she said it was excellent.

修正句(逗点 + 并列连词)
My professor read my paper, and she said it was excellent.

  1. 使用分号(在某些情况中,也可使用冒号或破折号)

可单独使用分号来分割句子,或在分号后加一个连接副词,例如,however、therefore、at any rate、in contrast、as a result等。紧随连接副词后,请记得加上一个逗号,不然会形成逗号拼接句。

病句(融合句)
My dog barked angrily I knew he wanted food.

病句(逗号拼接句)
My dog barked angrily, I knew he wanted food.

修正句(分号)
My dog barked angrily; I knew he wanted food.

修正(分号 + 副词 + 逗号)
My dog barked angrily; therefore, I knew he wanted food.

  1. 将连写句分割成独立的简单句

若其中一个独立简单句非常长,则建议使用这个方法。

病句(逗号拼接句)
It seemed to Jane that her son had more than enough pens, they were strewn across the bedroom floor, and some of them were broken, worse still, someone had used the tip of a red pen to mark a smiley face on the wall.

修正句(将句子分割)
It seemed to Jane that her son had more than enough pens. They were strewn across the bedroom floor, and some of them were broken. Worse still, someone had used the tip of a red pen to mark a smiley face on the wall.

  1. 重组句子,将其中一个独立简单句改为从句成分

若连写句中的某一简单句的重要性低于其他简单句,便可将该简单句改为从句。以下几个范例中,由简单句转换的从句以下划线表示。需注意的是,改写后的从句不再是独立简单句,无法单独成句。

病句(逗号拼接句)
The largest tree by volume in the world is the General Sherman Sequoia, it is a little over 52,500 cubic feet.

修正句(句尾改为从句)
The largest tree by volume in the world is the General Sherman Sequoia, which is a little over 52,500 cubic feet.

病句(逗号拼接句)
Richard Chen is a professor at Princeton University, he wrote the novel The longest sleep.

修正句(句中改为从句)

Richard Chen, a professor at Princeton University, wrote The longest sleep.

病句(逗号拼接句)
I told my roommate I would be late, she still locked me out.

修正句(句首改为从句)
Although I told my roommate I would be late, she still locked me out.

病句(融合句)
I told the children I would read to them they said they wanted to sit by me so they could look at the pictures.

修正句(句首改为从句)
When I told the children I would read to them, they said they wanted to sit by me so they could look at the pictures.

 

Reference:

Hacker, Diana. A Writer’s Reference. 5th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2003. Print. 200–06.